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Citing Sources: Home

Citation Syles

MLA: is based on the Modern Language Association’s MLA Manual & Guide to Scholarly Publishing. MLA Style is commonly used in the Arts and Humanities.

APA: is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . APA Style is commonly used in the Social and Applied Sciences, Psychology, and Education.

Chicago: is derived from the The Chicago Manual of Style. Chicago Style is commonly used in history, business, and art.

Writing Center

Need more help with citations or your paper in general? Make an appointment with the Writing Center.

The Brainard Writing Center is a free resource available to all members of the Carthage community. Whether you need help choosing a topic, formulating a thesis statement, organizing your thoughts, or polishing your final draft, the Writing Center is here to help.

General Principles of Copyright

Copyright protects the rights of authors and creators to earn money and claim authorship and ownership over things that they have created. Copyright can also be given away or sold.

For students, faculty, and staff, the most important thing to remember is that just because you can read it online or in a book doesn’t mean you can copy images or text. That image or text belongs to the original authors. However, you can use limited amounts of text and images to support your own writings according to the principle of Fair Use.

Fair use is the use of copyrighted materials for the following reasons: scholarship, private study, research, parody, commentary, teaching, or news reporting. The fair use status of copying is determined by four major factors.

  • What did you copy?
  • Why did you copy?
  • How much did you copy?
  • Did your copying impact the market for the original?

There is no set legal limit on how much you can copy, however, most people agree that you should do your best to use as little as possible. Your papers and publications should be mostly your thoughts and words, not someone else’s.

For more information, go to the Library's Copyright Information page.


Carthage Plagiarism Policy

Plagiarism is the appropriation by any means of another’s work or words and the unacknowledged incorporation of that work or words in one’s written [as well as oral] work offered for credit. Some ideas have such wide currency that all may use them freely; some words, such as proverbs and clichés are public property. But when the writer borrows what belongs to another, the writer must indicate the source by way of an internal reference, and she/he must enclose all distinctive words of the source within quotation marks.

Carthage takes plagiarism and academic dishonesty very seriously. Go to the Academic Honesty Policy on the Academic Policy page on the Carthage website to learn more.

How to avoid Plagiarism

  • When in doubt, cite your source
  • Be clear with who said what with in-text citations
  • When paraphrasing, do more than change a word here and there

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